# cronosd

cronosd is the all-in-one command-line interface. It supports wallet management, funds transfer and staking operations.

# Build and configurations

# Build Prerequisites

# Using cronosd

cronosdis bundled with the Crypto.org Chain code. After you have obtained the latest cronosd binary, run

$ cronosd [command]

There is also a -h, --help command available

$ cronosd -h

# Config and data directory

By default, your config and data are stored in the folder located at the ~/.cronos directory.

Make sure you have backed up your wallet storage after creating the wallet or else your funds may be inaccessible in case of accident forever.

# Configure cronosd config and data directory

To specify the cronosd config and data storage directory; you can add a global flag --home <directory>

# Configuration Setting

We can view the default config setting by using cronosd config command:

$ cronosd config
{
	"chain-id": "",
	"keyring-backend": "os",
	"output": "text",
	"node": "tcp://localhost:26657",
	"broadcast-mode": "sync"
}

We can make changes to the default settings upon our choices, so it allows users to set the configuration beforehand all at once, so it would be ready with the same config afterward.

For example, the chain-id can be changed to cronostestnet_338-1 from a blank name by

$ cronosd config "chain-id" cronostestnet_338-1
$ cronosd config
{
	"chain-id": "cronostestnet_338-1",
	"keyring-backend": "os",
	"output": "text",
	"node": "tcp://localhost:26657",
	"broadcast-mode": "sync"
}

Other values can be changed in the same way.

Alternatively, we can directly make the changes to the config values in one place at client.toml. It is under the path of .ethermint/config/client.toml in the folder where we installed ethermint:

############################################################################
###                         Client Configuration                         ###
############################################################################

# The network chain ID
chain-id = "cronostestnet_338-1"
# The keyring's backend, where the keys are stored (os|file|kwallet|pass|test|memory)
keyring-backend = "os"
# CLI output format (text|json)
output = "number"
# <host>:<port> to Tendermint RPC interface for this chain
node = "tcp://localhost:26657"
# Transaction broadcasting mode (sync|async|block)
broadcast-mode = "sync"

After the necessary changes are made in the client.toml, then save. For example, if we directly change the chain-id from ethermint0 to ethermint-test1, and output to number, it would change instantly as shown below.

$ cronosd config
{
	"chain-id": "ethermint-test1",
	"keyring-backend": "os",
	"output": "number",
	"node": "tcp://localhost:26657",
	"broadcast-mode": "sync"
}

# Options

A list of commonly used flags of cronosd is listed below:

Option Description Type Default Value
--home Directory for config and data string ~/.cronos
--chain-id Full Chain ID String ---
--output Output format string "text"
--keyring-backend Select keyring's backend os/file/test os

# Command list

A list of commonly used cronosd commands.

Command Description List
keys Keys management add <wallet_name>

add <key_name> --recover

list

show <key_name>

delete <key_name>

export <key_name>
tx Transactions subcommands bank send

staking delegate

staking unbond

staking create-validator

slashing unjail
query Query subcommands query bank balance

You may also add the flag -h, --help on cronosd [command] to get more available commands and details.

Example: More details of subcommand - tx staking
$ cronosd tx staking --help
Staking transaction subcommands

Usage:
  cronosd tx staking [flags]
  cronosd tx staking [command]

Available Commands:
  create-validator create new validator initialized with a self-delegation to it
  delegate         Delegate liquid tokens to a validator
  edit-validator   edit an existing validator account
  redelegate       Redelegate illiquid tokens from one validator to another
  unbond           Unbond shares from a validator

Flags:
  -h, --help   help for staking

Global Flags:
      --chain-id string     The network chain ID
      --home string         directory for config and data (default "/Users/.cronos")
      --log_format string   The logging format (json|plain) (default "plain")
      --log_level string    The logging level (trace|debug|info|warn|error|fatal|panic) (default "info")
      --trace

# Keys management - cronosd keys

First of all, you will need an address to store and spend your CRO.

# keys add <wallet_name> - Create a new key

You can create a new key with the name Default as in the following example:

Example: Create a new address
$ cronosd keys add Default
- name: Default
  type: local
  address: tcrc1r4erhyx6jk8nsafhlw7263upnw9hja90gdgj5d
  pubkey: '{"@type":"/ethermint.crypto.v1alpha1.ethsecp256k1.PubKey","key":"A3EzNez+oPwDnRTY9OWdVDSjOqikiP7zYncTyxil2SgO"}'
  mnemonic: ""


**Important** write this mnemonic phrase in a safe place.
It is the only way to recover your account if you ever forget your password.

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The key comes with a "mnemonic phrase", which is serialized into a human-readable 24-word mnemonic. User can recover their associated addresses with the mnemonic phrase.

WARNING

It is important that you keep the mnemonic for address secure, as there is no way to recover it. You would not be able to recover and access the funds in the wallet if you forget the mnemonic phrase.

# keys add <key_name> --recover - Restore existing key by seed phrase

You can restore an existing key with the mnemonic.

Example: Restore an existing key
$ cronosd keys add Default_restore --recover
> Enter your bip39 mnemonic
## Enter your 24-word mnemonic here ##

# keys list - List your keys

Multiple keys can be created when needed. You can list all keys saved under the storage path.

Example: List all of your keys
$ cronosd keys list
    - name: Default
    type: local
    address: ## Address of "Default" ##
    pubkey: ## Pubkey of "Default" ##
    mnemonic: ""
    threshold: 0
    pubkeys: []
  - name: Default_restore
    type: local
    address: ## Address of "Default_restore" ##
    pubkey: ## Pubkey of "Default_restore" ##
    mnemonic: ""
    threshold: 0
    pubkeys: []

# keys show <key_name> - Retrieve key information

You can retrieve key information by its name:

Example: Retrieve key information - Account Address and its public key
$ cronosd keys show mykey --bech acc
- name: mykey
  type: local
  address: tcrc1qsklxwt77qrxur494uvw07zjynu03dq9alwh37
  pubkey: '{"@type":"/ethermint.crypto.v1alpha1.ethsecp256k1.PubKey","key":"A8nbJ3eW9oAb2RNZoS8L71jFMfjk6zVa1UISYgKK9HPm"}'
  mnemonic: ""
Example: Retrieve key information - Validator Address and its public key
$ cronosd keys show Default --bech val
$ cronosd keys show test --bech val
- name: mykey
  type: local
  address: ethvaloper1qsklxwt77qrxur494uvw07zjynu03dq9rdsrlq
  pubkey: '{"@type":"/ethermint.crypto.v1alpha1.ethsecp256k1.PubKey","key":"A8nbJ3eW9oAb2RNZoS8L71jFMfjk6zVa1UISYgKK9HPm"}'
  mnemonic: ""
Example: Retrieve key information - Consensus nodes Address and its public key
$ cronosd keys show Default --bech cons
$ cronosd keys show test --bech cons
- name: mykey
  type: local
  address: ethvalcons1qsklxwt77qrxur494uvw07zjynu03dq9h7rlnp
  pubkey: '{"@type":"/ethermint.crypto.v1alpha1.ethsecp256k1.PubKey","key":"A8nbJ3eW9oAb2RNZoS8L71jFMfjk6zVa1UISYgKK9HPm"}'
  mnemonic: ""

# keys delete <key_name> - Delete a key

You can delete a key in your storage path.

WARNING

Make sure you have backed up the key mnemonic before removing any of your keys, as there will be no way to recover your key without the mnemonic.

Example: Remove a key
$ cronosd keys delete Default_restore1
Key reference will be deleted. Continue? [y/N]: y
Key deleted forever (uh oh!)

# keys export <key_name> - Export private keys

You can export and backup your key by using the export subcommand:

Example: Export your keys

Exporting the key Default :

$ cronosd keys export Default
Enter passphrase to encrypt the exported key: ## Insert passphrase (must be at least 8 characters)##
-----BEGIN TENDERMINT PRIVATE KEY-----
kdf: bcrypt
salt: ## Salt of the key ##
type: secp256k1

## Tendermint private key ##
-----END TENDERMINT PRIVATE KEY-----

# The keyring --keyring-backend option

Interacting with a node requires a public-private key pair. Keyring is the place holding the keys. The keys can be stored in different locations with specified backend type.

$ cronosd keys [subcommands] --keyring-backend [backend type]

# os backend

The default os backend stores the keys in operating system's credential sub-system, which are comfortable to most users, yet without compromising on security.

Here is a list of the corresponding password managers in different operating systems:

# file backend

The file backend stores the encrypted keys inside the app's configuration directory. A password entry is required everytime a user access it, which may also occur multiple times of repeated password prompts in one single command.

# test backend

The test backend is a password-less variation of the file backend. It stores unencrypted keys inside the app's configuration directory. It should only be used in testing environments and never be used in production.

# Transactions subcommands - cronosd tx

# tx bank send - Transfer operation

Transfer operation involves the transfer of tokens between two addresses.

# Send Funds [tx bank send <from_key_or_address> <to_address> <amount> <network_id>]

Example: Send 10tcro from an address to another.
$ cronosd tx bank send Default tcrc1gjdxrv77zfpq6cywcs8kg6gqyfhl5768ucel6t 10tcro  --chain-id cronostestnet_338-1
  ## Transaction payload##
  {"body":{"messages":[{"@type":"/cosmos.bank.v1beta1.MsgSend","from_address"....}
confirm transaction before signing and broadcasting [y/N]: y

# tx staking - Staking operations

Staking operations involve the interaction between an address and a validator. It allows you to create a validator and lock/unlocking funds for staking purposes.

# Delegate you funds to a validator [tx staking delegate <validator-addr> <amount>]

To bond funds for staking, you can delegate funds to a validator by the delegate command

Example: Delegate funds from `mykey` to a validator under the address `ethvaloper...lq`
$ cronosd tx staking delegate ethvaloper1qsklxwt77qrxur494uvw07zjynu03dq9rdsrlq 100tcro --from mykey --chain-id cronostestnet_338-1
## Transactions payload##
{"body":{"messages":[{"@type":"/cosmos.staking.v1beta1.MsgDelegate"....}
confirm transaction before signing and broadcasting [y/N]: y

# Unbond your delegated funds [tx staking unbond <validator-addr> <amount>]

On the other hand, we can create a Unbond transaction to unbond the delegated funds

Example: Unbond funds from a validator under the address `ethvaloper...lq`
$ cronosd tx staking unbond ethvaloper1qsklxwt77qrxur494uvw07zjynu03dq9rdsrlq 100tcro --from mykey --chain-id cronostestnet_338-1
## Transaction payload##
{"body":{"messages":[{"@type":"/cosmos.staking.v1beta1.MsgUndelegate"...}
confirm transaction before signing and broadcasting [y/N]: y

TIP

  • Once your funds were unbonded, It will be locked until the unbonding_time has passed.

# Balance & transaction history

# query bank balances - Check your transferable balance

You can check your transferable balance with the balances command under the bank module.

Example: Check your address balance
$ cronosd query bank balances tcrc1a303tt49l5uhe87yaneyggly83g7e4uncdxqtl --output json | jq

{
  "balances": [
    {
      "denom": "basetcro",
      "amount": "99999000000000000000000000"
    }
  ],
  "pagination": {
    "next_key": null,
    "total": "0"
  }
}

# Advance operations and transactions

# tx staking create-validator - Joining the network as a validator

Anyone who wishes to become a validator can submit a create-validator transaction by

$ cronosd tx staking create-validator [flags]
Example: Joining the network as a validator
$ cronosd tx staking create-validator \
--amount="100cro" \
--pubkey='{"@type":...,"key":...}' \
--moniker="The_new_node" \
--chain-id="cronostestnet_338-1" \
--commission-rate="0.10" \
--commission-max-rate="0.20" \
--commission-max-change-rate="0.01" \
--min-self-delegation="1" \
--from=node1
## Transactions payload##
{"body":{"messages":[{"@type":"/cosmos.staking.v1beta1.MsgCreateValidator"...}
confirm transaction before signing and broadcasting [y/N]: y

(TODO: details of each flag )

# tx slashing unjail - Unjail a validator

Validator could be punished and jailed due to network misbehaviour, for example if we check the validator set:

$ cronosd query staking validators -o json | jq
................................
    "operator_address": "ethvaloper1zwm45n5r3u3xcpsd00d3arwzhz7250rtsadv65",
    "consensus_pubkey": {
        "@type": "/cosmos.crypto.ed25519.PubKey",
        "key": "fD6cWVYv5rsNbXDw3hVIbB3nd9x57HsTyeMgwmH472U="
    },
    "jailed": false,
    "status": "BOND_STATUS_BONDED",
................................

After the jailing period has passed, one can broadcast a unjail transaction to unjail the validator and resume its normal operations by

$ cronosd tx slashing unjail --from node1 --chain-id cronostestnet_338-1
  {"body":{"messages":[{"@type":"/cosmos.slashing.v1beta1.MsgUnjail"...}]}
  confirm transaction before signing and broadcasting [y/N]: y